Spacecraft Launch Date Operator Mission Outcome Remarks Carrier rocket 1M No.1 10 October 1960 OKB-1
Soviet Union Flyby Launch failure Failed to orbit Molniya
1M No.2 14 October 1960 OKB-1
Soviet Union Flyby Launch failure Failed to orbit Molniya
2MV-4 No.1 24 October 1962 Soviet Union Flyby Launch failure Booster stage (“Block L”) disintegrated in LEO Molniya
(2MV-4 No.2) 1 November 1962 Soviet Union Flyby Spacecraft failure Communications lost before flyby Molniya
2MV-3 No.1 4 November 1962 Soviet Union Lander Launch failure Never left LEO Molniya
Mariner 3 5 November 1964 NASA
United States Flyby Launch failure Payload fairing failed to separate Atlas LV-3 Agena-D
Mariner 4 28 November 1964 NASA
United States Flyby Successful The first flyby of Mars on 15 July 1965 Atlas LV-3 Agena-D
(3MV-4A No.2) 30 November 1964 Soviet Union Flyby Spacecraft failure Communications lost before flyby Molniya
Mariner 6 25 February 1969 NASA
United States Flyby Successful Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D
27 March 1969 Soviet Union Orbiter Launch failure Failed to orbit Proton-K/D
Mariner 7 27 March 1969 NASA
United States Flyby Successful Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D
2 April 1969 Soviet Union Orbiter Launch failure Failed to orbit Proton-K/D
Mariner 8 9 May 1971 NASA
United States Orbiter Launch failure Failed to orbit Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D
(3MS No.170) 10 May 1971 Soviet Union Orbiter Launch failure Never left LEO; booster stage burn timer set incorrectly Proton-K/D
(4M No.171) 19 May 1971 Soviet Union Orbiter Successful Entered orbit on 27 November 1971, operated for 362 orbits Proton-K/D
Mars 2 lander
(SA 4M No.171) 19 May 1971 Soviet Union Lander Spacecraft failure Deployed from Mars 2, failed to land during attempt on 27 November 1971 Proton-K/D
(4M No.172) 28 May 1971 Soviet Union Orbiter Successful Entered orbit on 2 December 1971, operated for 20 orbits Proton-K/D
Mars 3 lander
(SA 4M No.172) 28 May 1971 Soviet Union Lander Partial failure The first lander on Mars, landed on 2 December 1971; contact lost 14.5 seconds after transmission start Proton-K/D
Prop-M Rover rover
(SA 4M No.172) 28 May 1971 Soviet Union Rover Spacecraft failure Failed to deploy Proton-K/D
Mariner 9 30 May 1971 NASA
United States Orbiter Successful The first orbiter of Mars. Entered orbit on 14 November 1971, deactivated 516 days after entering orbit Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D
(3MS No.52S) 21 July 1973 Soviet Union Orbiter Spacecraft failure Failed to perform orbital insertion burn Proton-K/D
(3MS No.53S) 25 July 1973 Soviet Union Orbiter Partial failure Failed after 9 days in Mars orbit; returned 180 frames Proton-K/D
(3MP No.50P) 5 August 1973 Soviet Union Lander
Flyby Spacecraft failure Contact lost upon landing, atmospheric data mostly unreadable. Flyby bus collected data. Proton-K/D
(3MP No.51P) 9 August 1973 Soviet Union Lander
Flyby Spacecraft failure Separated from coast stage prematurely, failed to enter Martian atmosphere Proton-K/D
Viking 1 orbiter 20 August 1975 NASA
United States Orbiter Successful Operated for 1385 orbits Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T
Viking 1 lander 20 August 1975 NASA
United States Lander Successful The first lander successfully returning data, deployed from Viking 1 orbiter, operated for 2245 sols Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T
Viking 2 orbiter 9 September 1975 NASA
United States Orbiter Successful Operated for 700 orbits Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T
Viking 2 lander 9 September 1975 NASA
United States Lander Successful Deployed from Viking 2 orbiter, operated for 1281 sols (11 Apr 1980) Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T
(1F No.101) 7 July 1988 Soviet Union Orbiter
Phobos lander Spacecraft failure Communications lost before reaching Mars; failed to enter orbit Proton-K/D-2
(1F No.102) 12 July 1988 Soviet Union Orbiter
Phobos lander Partial failure Orbital observations successful, communications lost before landing Proton-K/D-2
Mars Observer 25 September 1992 NASA
United States Orbiter Spacecraft failure Lost communications before orbital insertion Commercial Titan III
Mars Global Surveyor 7 November 1996 NASA
United States Orbiter Successful Operated for seven years Delta II 7925
(M1 No.520)(Mars-8) 16 November 1996 Rosaviakosmos
Penetrators Launch failure Never left LEO Proton-K/D-2
Mars Pathfinder 4 December 1996 NASA
United States Lander Successful Landed at 19.13°N 33.22°W on 4 July 1997 Delta II 7925
Sojourner 4 December 1996 NASA
United States Rover Successful The first rover on another planet, operated for 84 days Delta II 7925
(PLANET-B) 3 July 1998 ISAS
Japan Orbiter Spacecraft failure Ran out of fuel before reaching Mars M-V
Mars Climate Orbiter 11 December 1998 NASA
United States Orbiter Spacecraft failure Approached Mars too closely during orbit insertion attempt due to unit conversion error and burned up in the atmosphere Delta II 7425
Mars Polar Lander 3 January 1999 NASA
United States Lander Spacecraft failure Failed to land Delta II 7425
Deep Space 2 3 January 1999 NASA
United States Penetrator Spacecraft failure Deployed from MPL, no data returned Delta II 7425
Mars Odyssey 7 April 2001 NASA
United States Orbiter Operational Expected to remain operational until 2025. Delta II 7925
Mars Express 2 June 2003 ESA
Europe Orbiter Operational Enough fuel to remain operational until 2026. Soyuz-FG/Fregat
Beagle 2 2 June 2003 ESA
Europe Lander Lander failure No communications received after release from Mars Express. Orbital images of landing site suggest a successful landing, but two solar panels failed to deploy, obstructing its communications. Soyuz-FG/Fregat
(MER-A) 10 June 2003 NASA
United States Rover Successful Landed on January 4, 2004.
Operated for 2208 sols Delta II 7925
(MER-B) 8 July 2003 NASA
United States Rover Successful Landed on January 25, 2004.
Operated for 5351 sols Delta II 7925H
Rosetta 2 March 2004 ESA
Europe Gravity assist Successful Flyby in February 2007 en route to 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko Ariane 5G+
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter 12 August 2005 NASA
United States Orbiter Operational Entered orbit on March 10, 2006 Atlas V 401
Phoenix 4 August 2007 NASA
United States Lander Successful Landed on May 25, 2008.
End of mission November 2, 2008 Delta II 7925
Dawn 27 September 2007 NASA
United States Gravity assist Successful Flyby in February 2009 en route to 4 Vesta and Ceres Delta II 7925H
Fobos-Grunt 8 November 2011 Roskosmos
Phobos sample Spacecraft failure Never left LEO (intended to depart under own power) Zenit-2M
Yinghuo-1 8 November 2011 CNSA
PR China Orbiter Failure
Lost with Fobos-Grunt To have been deployed by Fobos-Grunt Zenit-2M
(Mars Science Laboratory) 26 November 2011 NASA
United States Rover Operational Landed on August 6, 2012 Atlas V 541
Mars Orbiter Mission
(Mangalyaan) 5 November 2013 ISRO
India Orbiter Operational Entered orbit on 24 September 2014. Mission extended till 2020. PSLV-XL
MAVEN 18 November 2013 NASA
United States Orbiter Operational Orbit insertion on September 22, 2014 Atlas V 401
ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter 14 March 2016 ESA/Roscosmos
Europe/Russia Orbiter Operational Entered orbit on October 19, 2016 Proton-M/Briz-M
Schiaparelli EDM lander 14 March 2016 ESA
Europe Lander Spacecraft failure Carried by the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter. Although the lander crashed, engineering data on the first five minutes of entry was successfully retrieved. Proton-M/Briz-M
InSight & MarCO 5 May 2018 NASA
United States Lander & two CubeSats flyby Operational Landed on November 26, 2018. Atlas V 401
Locations of selected Mars landers and rovers
Map of Mars
The image above contains clickable linksInteractive imagemap of the global topography of Mars, overlain with locations of Mars landers and rovers. Hover your mouse to see the names of over 60 prominent geographic features, and click to link to them. Coloring of the base map indicates relative elevations, based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA’s Mars Global Surveyor. Whites and browns indicate the highest elevations (+12 to +8 km); followed by pinks and reds (+8 to +3 km); yellow is 0 km; greens and blues are lower elevations (down to −8 km). Axes are latitude and longitude; Polar regions are noted. (See also: Mars map, Mars Memorials, Mars Memorials map) (view • discuss)( Rover • Lander • Future )
Beagle 2← Beagle 2 (2003) Bradbury LandingCuriosity (2012) →Deep Space 2 Deep Space 2 (1999) →Columbia Memorial Station← Rosalind Franklin rover (2021?)InSight InSight (2018) →Mars 2020 ← Mars 2020 rover (2021?) Mars 2 Mars 2 (1971) →Mars 3 ← Mars 3 (1971)Mars 6 Mars 6 (1973) →Mars Polar Lander Polar Lander (1999) ↓Challenger Memorial Station↑ Opportunity (2004)Green Valley ← Phoenix (2008)Schiaparelli EDM landerSchiaparelli EDM (2016) → Carl Sagan Memorial Station← Sojourner (1997)Columbia Memorial StationSpirit (2004) ↑Thomas Mutch Memorial StationViking 1 (1976) →Gerald Soffen Memorial StationViking 2 (1976) →
There are a number of derelict orbiters around Mars whose location is not known precisely; there is a proposal to search for small moons, dust rings, and old orbiters with the Optical Navigation Camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.  There should be 8 derelict Mars orbiters barring unforeseen events if they have not decayed as of 2016. One example is Mariner 9, which entered Mars orbit in 1971 and is expected to remain in orbit until approximately 2022, when the spacecraft is projected to enter the Martian atmosphere and either burn up or crash into the planet’s surface. The Viking 1 orbiter is predicted not to decay until at least 2019. One orbiter that is confirmed to have undergone Mars atmospheric entry is Mars Climate Orbiter.
(see also List of Mars orbiters)
Mission Organization Launch Type
Hope Mars Mission MBRSC, UAE July 2020  Orbiter
Mars 2020 NASA, USA July 2020 Rover, helicopter
ExoMars 2020 ESA, EU
SRI RAS, Russia July 2020 Lander, rover
2020 Chinese Mars Mission CNSA, China July/August 2020 Orbiter, rover
Mars Terahertz Microsatellite NICT, ISSL, Japan July 2020 Orbiter, lander
Mars Orbiter Mission 2 (Mangalyaan 2) ISRO, India 2022 Orbiter
Martian Moons Exploration (MMX) JAXA, Japan 2024 Orbiter, Phobos lander
Mission Organisation Proposed
Demo mission SpaceX, USA 2022 Lander, cargo Crewed mission SpaceX, USA 2024 Lander, cargo, crew Next Mars Orbiter (NeMO) NASA, USA Late 2020s Telecomm orbiter (originally proposed for 2022)
Missions to the moons of Mars
Phobos’ Stickney Crater
Deimos (lower left) and Phobos (lower right) compared with the asteroid 951 Gaspra
Phobos by Mars Global Surveyor in 1998 Missions dedicated to explore the two moons of Mars, Phobos and Deimos. Many missions to Mars have also included dedicated observations of the Moons, while this section is about missions focused solely on them. There have been three unsuccessful dedicated missions and many proposals. Because of the proximity of the Mars moons to Mars, any mission to them may also be considered a mission to Mars from some perspectives.
There have been at least three proposals in the United States Discovery Program, including PADME, PANDORA, and MERLIN. The ESA has also considered a sample return mission, one of the latest known as Martian Moon Sample Return or MMSR, and it may use heritage from an asteroid sample return mission.
Proposal Target Reference
Aladdin Phobos and Deimos  DePhine Phobos and Deimos  DSR Deimos  Gulliver Deimos  Hall Phobos and Deimos  M-PADS Phobos and Deimos  Merlin Phobos and Deimos  MMSR (2011 ver.) Phobos or Deimos  OSRIS-REx 2 Phobos or Deimos  Pandora Phobos and Deimos  PCROSS Phobos  Phobos Surveyor Phobos  PRIME Phobos  Fobos-Grunt 2 Phobos  Phootprint Phobos  PADME Phobos and Deimos  In Japan, the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) is developing a sample return mission to Phobos, due to launch in 2024. This mission is called Martian Moons Exploration (MMX) and is proposed as a flagship Strategic Large Mission. MMX will build on the expertise the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) would gain through the Hayabusa2 and SLIM missions. As of January 2018, MMX is set for launch in September 2024.
Planned mission Target Reference
Martian Moons Exploration (MMX) Phobos and Deimos  Three missions to land on Phobos have been launched; the Phobos program in the late 1980s saw the launch of Fobos 1 and Fobos 2, while the Fobos-Grunt sample return mission was launched in 2011. None of these missions were successful: Fobos 1 failed en route to Mars, Fobos 2 failed shortly before landing, and Fobos-Grunt never left low Earth orbit.
Launched mission Target Reference
Phobos 1 Phobos
Phobos 2 Phobos
Missions sent to the Martian system have returned data on Phobos and Deimos and missions specifically dedicated to the moons are a subset of missions Mars that often include dedicated goals to acquire data about these moons. An example of this is the imaging campaigns by Mars Express of the Mars moons.
Osiris-Rex 2 was a proposal to make OR a double mission, with the other one collecting samples from the two Mars moons. In 2012, it was stated that this mission would be the both quickest and least expensive way to get samples from the Moons.
The ‘Red Rocks Project’, a part of Lockheed Martin’s “Stepping stones to Mars” program, proposed to explore Mars robotically from Deimos.
Mars 4NM and Mars 5NM – projects intended by the Soviet Union for heavy Marsokhod (in 1973 according to initial plan of 1970) and Mars sample return (planned for 1975). The missions were to be launched on the failed N1 rocket. Mars 5M (Mars-79) – double-launching Soviet sample return mission planned to 1979 but cancelled due to complexity and technical problems
Voyager-Mars – USA, 1970s – Two orbiters and two landers, launched by a single Saturn V rocket.
Vesta – the multiaimed Soviet mission, developed in cooperation with European countries for realisation in 1991–1994 but canceled due to the Soviet Union disbanding, included the flyby of Mars with delivering the aerostat and small landers or penetrators followed by flybys of 1 Ceres or 4 Vesta and some other asteroids with impact of penetrator on the one of them.
Mars Aerostat – Russian/French balloon part for cancelled Vesta mission and then for failed Mars 96 mission, originally planned for the 1992 launch window, postponed to 1994 and then to 1996 before being cancelled. Mars Together, combined U.S. and Russian mission study in the 1990s. To be launched by a Molinya with possible U.S. orbiter or lander. Mars Environmental Survey – set of 16 landers planned for 1999–2009
Mars-98 – Russian mission including an orbiter, lander, and rover, planned for 1998 launch opportunity as repeat of failured Mars 96 mission and cancelled due to lack of funding
Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander – October 2001 – Mars lander (refurbished, became Phoenix lander)
Kitty Hawk – Mars airplane micromission, proposed for December 17, 2003, the centennial of the Wright brothers’ first flight. Its funding was eventually given to the 2003 Mars Network project. NetLander – 2007 or 2009 – Mars netlanders
Beagle 3 – 2009 British lander mission meant to search for life, past or present.
Mars Telecommunications Orbiter – September 2009 – Mars orbiter for telecommunications
Sky-Sailor – 2014 – Plane developed by Switzerland to take detailed pictures of Mars surface
Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher – 2018 rover concept, cancelled due to budget cuts in 2011. Sample cache goal later moved to Mars 2020 rover. Red Dragon – Derivative of a Dragon 2 capsule by SpaceX, designed to land by aerobraking and retropropulsion. Planned for 2018, then 2020. Cancelled in favor of the Starship system.
Tumbleweed rover, wind-propelled sphere See also
Artificial objects on Mars
Exploration of Mars
Manned mission to Mars
Mars Exploration Rover
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惑星資源探査 ⼩型テラヘルツ探査機 (PDF) (in Japanese). National Institute of Information and Communications Technology. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 2017-05-13.
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Elon Musk: we can launch a manned mission to Mars by 2024 – video. The Guardian. 29 September 2017.
Clark, Stephen (April 9, 2018). “NASA is counting on long-lived Mars orbiter lasting another decade”. Spaceflight Now. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
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 MERLIN: The Creative Choices Behind a Proposal to Explore the Martian Moons (Merlin and PADME info also)
MMSR – a study for a Martian Moon Sample Return mission
C. Pieters, et al. – Aladdin: Phobos-Deimos Sample Return
DePhine: The Deimos and Phobos Interior Explorer. (PDF) Jurgen Oberst, Kai Wickhusen, Konrad Willner, Klaus Gwinner, Sofya Spiridonova, Ralph Kahle, Andrew Coates, Alain Herique, Dirk Plettemeier, Marina Dıaz-Michelena, Alexander Zakharo, Yoshifumi Futaana, Martin Patzold, Pascal Rosenblatt, David J. Lawrence, Valery Lainey, Alison Gibbings, Ingo Gerth. Advances in Space Research. Volume 62, Issue 8. pp: 2220-2238. 15 October 2018. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2017.12.028
Small Body Sample Return to Deimos
Dr. Britt – The Gulliver Mission: Sample Return from Deimos
P. Lee, et al. – Hall: A Phobos and Deimos Sample Return Mission Archived 2012-07-29 at the Wayback Machine
Mars Phobos and Deimos Survey (M-PADS)–A Martian Moons Orbiter and Phobos Lander (Ball, Andrew J.; Price, Michael E.; Walker, Roger J.; Dando, Glyn C.; Wells, Nigel S. and Zarnecki, John C. (2009). Mars Phobos and Deimos Survey (M-PADS)–A Martian Moons Orbiter and Phobos Lander. Advances in Space Research, 43(1), pp. 120–127.)
Murchie, S.; Eng, D.; Chabot, N.; Guo, Y.; Arvidson, R.; Yen, A.; Trebi-Ollennu, A.; Seelos, F.; Adams, E.; Fountain, G. (2014). “MERLIN: Mars-Moon Exploration, Reconnaissance and Landed Investigation”. Acta Astronautica. 93: 475–482. Bibcode:2014AcAau..93..475M. doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2012.10.014.
Elifritz, T. L. – OSIRIS-REx II to Mars
Colaprete, A, et al. – PCROSS — Phobos Close Rendevous(sic) Observation Sensing Satellite
Phobos Surveyor – Space Safety Magazine
PRIME Archived 2008-05-10 at the Wayback Machine
SSM – Phobos-Grunt 2 Bound for Launch in 2020, Russians Confirmed While Celebrating Sputnik
Barraclough, Simon; Ratcliffe, Andrew; Buchwald, Robert; Scheer, Heloise; Chapuy, Marc; Garland, Martin (June 16, 2014). Phootprint: A European Phobos Sample Return Mission (PDF). 11th International Planetary Probe Workshop. Airbus Defense and Space.
Koschny, Detlef; Svedhem, Håkan; Rebuffat, Denis (August 2, 2014). “Phootprint – A Phobos sample return mission study”. ESA. Bibcode:2014cosp…40E1592K. Missing or empty |url= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
Lee, Pascal; Bicay, Michael; Colapre, Anthony; Elphic, Richard (March 17–21, 2014). Phobos And Deimos & Mars Environment (PADME): A LADEE-Derived Mission to Explore Mars’s Moons and the Martian Orbital Environment (PDF). 45th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2014).
Reyes, Tim (1 October 2014). “Making the Case for a Mission to the Martian Moon Phobos”. Universe Today. Retrieved 2014-10-05.
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MMX Homepage. JAXA, 2017
OSIRIS-REx II to Mars – Mars Sample Return from Phobos and Deimos
Elifritz, T. L. – OSIRIS-REx II to Mars — Mars Sample Return from Phobos and Deimos (2012)
Larry Page Deep Space Exploration – Stepping Stones builds up to “Red Rocks : Explore Mars from Deimos”
One Possible Small Step Toward Mars Landing: A Martian Moon
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C. Tarrieu, “Status of the Mars 96 Aerostat Development”, Paper IAF-93-Q.3.399, 44th Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, 1993.
P.B. de Selding, “Planned French Balloon May Be Dropped”, Space News, 17–23 April 1995, pp. 1, 20
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MIT Mars Airplane Project. Marsnews.com. Retrieved on 2012-08-14.
Exploring Mars: Blowing in the Wind? Jpl.nasa.gov (2001-08-10). Retrieved on 2012-08-14.
Space missions by destination
NASA planetary exploration programs
Spacecraft missions to Mars
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Categories: MarsMissions to MarsMissions to the planetsLists of space missions